Update software packages on Debian Linux 9

Debian Linux, by default, uses the deb packages, the aptitude package manager and the apt-get command-line tool, which enables users and admins to administer the installation, removal and updating of all the software on their systems (those which are installed and managed by apt). In this tutorial I’ll show you how to update your software on Debian Linux without upgrading the Operating System version by running one command on your bash shell terminal. For this to work, you need to be part of the “sudo” group on your system. You will also need to know your user password.

apt-get, the APT-based command-line tool for handling packages, provides a simple, safe way to install and upgrade packages – The Debian GNU/Linux FAQ
Chapter 9 – Keeping your Debian system up-to-date

Update package list and update the software packages to the newest version supported by your system:

Run the following command on your terminal emulator, with a bash shell.

sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get upgrade

The “&&” bash command tells your system to run one apt-get command after the other as long as the first command completed successfully. “apt-get update” updates the package lists on your system, and “apt-get upgrade” update your software to the newest stable versions supported by your current OS version. After entering these commands, your system will ask you to confirm changes to the software. You may also add the “-y” argument to “apt-get upgrade” command to confirm almost all changes without further interactions.



Set keyboard shortcuts on XFCE4

On your xfce menu, open

Settings > Settings manager > Keyboard > Shortcuts.

There you may find a menu where you can set and reset keyboard shortcuts. The Lock screen shortcuts are CTRL-ALT-L and CTRL-ALT-DEL by default. I also set the Windows super key to open the desktop menu.

To set this, scroll down the panel and press add.


In the “Command” field, enter



and press OK.

Now, without pressing any other keys, press the super key. Now it’ll be set and look like this, depending on your theme and color settings.


Test it, when pressing your super key, the menu must show up.

You may repeat this same process for other shortcuts. I like to set a shortcut to open a terminal emulator with the lxterminal command and the CTRL-ALT-T combination.

Fedora linux, VirtualBox and secure-boot

Today after installing and trying to run Virtual Box on Fedora 25, I noticed that since secure-boot prevents unsigned kernel modules from running, it can be disabled as an easy solution to running VirtualBox on Fedora 25.

Two explanations from this fedora forum link :

Ok it won’t work, as I said above…

Then I had a look in the bios, and I saw that the Secure Boot is enable (there was Windows 8 on this computer before…) I disabled it just in case, and then it works


Yes, secure boot could have a definite impact if the virtualbox kernel module isn’t signed. That is exactly what secure boot is supposed to prevent.

With secure boot, your kernel and all kernel modules have to be signed.

Now this is where things get tricky or flat out painful.

You kernel is signed by Fedora using their key. Fedora isn’t going to sign the virtualbox drivers, especially since it goes against their FOSS policy. Oracle can’t sign virtualbox using Fedora’s key.

So, you are pretty much left with 2 options.

1: Disable secure boot


2: get your own key and sign everything yourself.